Periprocedural Hydrogen Sulfide Therapy Improves Vascular Remodeling and Attenuates Vein Graft Disease
Background Failure rates after revascularization surgery remain high, both in vein grafts (VG) and arterial interventions. One promising approach to improve outcomes is endogenous upregulation of the gaseous transmitter-molecule hydrogen sulfide, via short-term dietary restriction. However, strict patient compliance stands as a potential translational barrier in the vascular surgery patient population. Here we present a new therapeutic approach, via a locally applicable gel containing the hydrogen sulfide releasing prodrug (GYY), to both mitigate graft failure and improve arterial remodeling. Methods and Results All experiments were performed on C57BL/6 (male, 12 weeks old) mice. VG surgery was performed by grafting a donor-mouse cava vein into the right common carotid artery of a recipient via an end-to-end anastomosis. In separate experiments arterial intimal hyperplasia was assayed via a right common carotid artery focal stenosis model. All mice were harvested at postoperative day 28 and artery/graft was processed for histology. Efficacy of hydrogen sulfide was first tested via GYY supplementation of drinking water either 1 week before VG surgery (pre-GYY) or starting immediately postoperatively (post-GYY). Pre-GYY mice had a 36.5% decrease in intimal/media+adventitia area ratio compared with controls. GYY in a 40% Pluronic gel (or vehicle) locally applied to the graft/artery had decreased intimal/media area ratios (right common carotid artery) and improved vessel diameters. GYY-geltreated VG had larger diameters at both postoperative days 14 and 28, and a 56.7% reduction in intimal/media+adventitia area ratios. Intimal vascular smooth muscle cell migration was decreased 30.6% after GYY gel treatment, which was reproduced in vitro. Conclusions Local gel-based treatment with the hydrogen sulfide-donor GYY stands as a translatable therapy to improve VG durability and arterial remodeling after injury.
Endothelial Barrier Function and Leukocyte Transmigration in Atherosclerosis
The vascular endothelium is a highly specialized barrier that controls passage of fluids and migration of cells from the lumen into the vessel wall. Endothelial cells assist leukocytes to extravasate and despite the variety in the specific mechanisms utilized by different leukocytes to cross different vascular beds, there is a general principle of capture, rolling, slow rolling, arrest, crawling, and ultimately diapedesis via a paracellular or transcellular route. In atherosclerosis, the barrier function of the endothelium is impaired leading to uncontrolled leukocyte extravasation and vascular leakage. This is also observed in the neovessels that grow into the atherosclerotic plaque leading to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque destabilization. This review focuses on the vascular endothelial barrier function and the interaction between endothelial cells and leukocytes during transmigration. We will discuss the role of endothelial dysfunction, transendothelial migration of leukocytes and plaque angiogenesis in atherosclerosis.
Short-Term Pre-Operative Protein Caloric Restriction in Elective Vascular Surgery Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
(1) Background: Vascular surgery operations are hampered by high failure rates and frequent occurrence of peri-operative cardiovascular complications. In pre-clinical studies, pre-operative restriction of proteins and/or calories (PCR) has been shown to limit ischemia-reperfusion damage, slow intimal hyperplasia, and improve metabolic fitness. However, whether these dietary regimens are feasible and safe in the vascular surgery patient population remains unknown. (2) Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial in patients scheduled for any elective open vascular procedure. Participants were randomized in a 3:2 ratio to either four days of outpatient pre-operative PCR (30% calorie, 70% protein restriction) or their regular ad-libitum diet. Blood was drawn at baseline, pre-operative, and post-operative day 1 timepoints. A leukocyte subset flow cytometry panel was performed at these timepoints. Subcutaneous/perivascular adipose tissue was sampled and analyzed. Follow-up was one year post-op. (3) Results: 19 patients were enrolled, of whom 11 completed the study. No diet-related reasons for non-completion were reported, and there was no intervention group crossover. The PCR diet induced weight loss and BMI decrease without malnutrition. Insulin sensitivity was improved after four days of PCR ( = 0.05). Between diet groups, there were similar rates of re-intervention, wound infection, and cardiovascular complications. Leukocyte populations were maintained after four days of PCR. (4) Conclusions: Pre-operative PCR is safe and feasible in elective vascular surgery patients.
Phosphorylcholine Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Decreases Intraplaque Angiogenesis and Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Murine Vein Grafts
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is one of the main oxLDL epitopes playing a central role in atherosclerosis, due to its atherogenic and proinflammatory effects. PC can be cleared by natural IgM antibodies and low levels of these antibodies have been associated with human vein graft (VG) failure. Although PC antibodies are recognized for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effect on intraplaque angiogenesis (IPA) and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)-interdependent processes contributing to plaque rupture-are unknown. We hypothesized that new IgG phosphorylcholine antibodies (PC-mAb) could decrease vulnerable lesions in murine VGs.Therefore, hypercholesterolemic male ApoE3*Leiden mice received a (donor) caval vein interposition in the carotid artery and weekly IP injections of (5 mg/kg) PCmAb (n = 11) or vehicle (n = 12) until sacrifice at day 28. We found that PCmAb significantly decreased vein graft media (13%), intima lesion (25%), and increased lumen with 32% compared to controls. PCmAb increased collagen content (18%) and decreased macrophages presence (31%). PCmAb resulted in 23% decreased CD163+ macrophages content in vein grafts whereas CD163 expression was decreased in Hb:Hp macrophages. PCmAb significantly lowered neovessel density (34%), EC proliferation and migration with/out oxLDL stimulation. Moreover, PCmAb enhanced intraplaque angiogenic vessels maturation by increasing neovessel pericyte coverage in vivo (31%). Together, this resulted in a 62% decrease in IPH. PCmAb effectively inhibits murine atherosclerotic lesion formation in vein grafts by reducing IPA and IPH via decreased neovessel density and macrophages influx and increased neovessel maturation. PC-mAb therefore holds promise as a new therapeutic approach to prevent vein graft disease.
Short-term Pre-operative Methionine Restriction Induces Browning of Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Improves Vein Graft Remodeling in Mice
Short-term preoperative methionine restriction (MetR) shows promise as a translatable strategy to modulate the body's response to surgical injury. Its application, however, to improve post-interventional vascular remodeling remains underexplored. Here, we find that MetR protects from arterial intimal hyperplasia in a focal stenosis model and adverse vascular remodeling after vein graft surgery. RNA sequencing reveals that MetR enhances the brown adipose tissue phenotype in arterial perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and induces it in venous PVAT. Specifically, PPAR-α was highly upregulated in PVAT-adipocytes. Furthermore, MetR dampens the post-operative pro-inflammatory response to surgery in PVAT-macrophages and . This study shows for the first time that the detrimental effects of dysfunctional PVAT on vascular remodeling can be reversed by MetR, and identifies pathways involved in browning of PVAT. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of short-term pre-operative MetR as a simple intervention to ameliorate vascular remodeling after vascular surgery.